Key Terms of Union Budget

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10 Key Terms of Union Budget


It refers to the act of selling assets of a subsidiary or a sale by the government of a government-owned enterprise. This is done for raising resources to meet the normal expenditure of running the government or for special projects like giving additional capital to banks.

Divestment is hence considered a kind of non-tax revenue. The finance minister announces the expected amount to be raised during the financial year.


This refers to the amount spent by the government in order to reduce the price of some goods less than the market value. Subsidy is usually given on food products, fertilizers, etc. Last year the total amount spent on subsidies was Rs. 3600 billion.


This is the amount that the government raises by levying taxes. The taxes are income tax, Property Tax, Service tax, excise duty, customs duty, and corporation tax.


This expenditure is incurred by the central government in consultations with the Planning Commission for projects and in areas related to the achievement of the goals set out in the 5-year plans. The expenditure here is expected to result in the creation of better infrastructure and facilities across the country.


Non-plan revenue expenditure is the amount spent by the central government for the day to day running of the country for interest payments, subsidies wage and salary payments to government employees, pension, administrative costs, defense expenses policy, economic services in various sectors, other general services such as tax collection, social services, and grants to foreign governments.


It is the total of the capital repaid during the year along with the interest payments made on loans. This shows the amount that is spent in managing the debt of the country.


There is a difference in the revenue and the expenditure of the government. Revenue deficit is calculated by the difference between the revenue expenditure of the government and the revenue receipts that are earned during the year.


This is the difference between the total expenditure of the government in a year and the revenue receipts and the recoveries of loans. It is different from revenue deficit as it represents the amount that the government will have to borrow to fund its shortfall.  Lower the fiscal deficit, the better economy is.


This is the amount that is left out after deducting the interest payments of the country. It is known as the primary deficit as it gives the difference between the total expenditure and revenue. The smaller the interest payments, the better it is for the economy.


This refers to the amount that will be allowed as a deduction from the total taxable income of the taxpayer. The final tax is calculated on the taxable income after considering the deductions so this helps to reduce the taxable income and consequently the tax to be paid and hence deductions are eagerly awaited by all taxpayers so that they can make the most out of it.

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